The Fffect of English electronic book on the Students

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Problem
In learning English, students are expected to be able to master all language skills of English; listening, speaking, reading, and writing. It is based on the goal of teaching English. To be able to use English well, reading is one of the important skills. English reading becomes a more and more important in intenational communication. However, teachers of English often ignore the importance of reading in the classroom. Whereas, students need reading skill to get information from books, magazines, novels, essays, and internet. Therefore, the need for reading and taking out the information from various text above seems to be extremely important.

English is taught as a foreign language in Indonesia. Therefore, there are some problems in teaching reading. One of the problems that can be found is the media used by the teachers. Many kinds of teaching media may result bad or negative effects on students’ reading skill. So many students are hard to get the idea or meaning of the text. Another problem is lack of the students’ participation in the classroom. For example when the teacher dominates the activity in the classroom, the students may feel like they do not have enough chance to participate actively. The lack of participation may result in lack of motivation. And lack of motivation may influence students’ achievement on reading comprehension

Reading involves many skills to reach proficiency and requires students to effectively use these skills like language dynamics, writing styles, vocabulary, spelling skills, and reading comprehension strategies. Students need to be strong in all the areas of reading and the only way to grow as a reader and be successful is by practice. A student’s motivation to read is a critical factor in getting him involved in reading and improving his reading comprehension. 

Based on the researcher’s experiences, it was found that the students were still confused in determining the main idea of the text, making reference and inference, finding synonyms and vocabulary. From the teacher’s information in that school, it was reported that most of students still had problems in comprehending the text. Many students got under the KKM and they had difficulties to comprehending the English text.

One of the problems may be that the students feel bored because the media used by the teacher are monotonous. There are many students who felt sleepy when the teacher explained the materials. It may be because the teachers do not use interesting media in the class. It is necessary for English teacher to make reading materials more interesting and motivating so that the students can progress in reading. If their motivation is good in reading comprehension then it will influence their achievement also. 

Based on the statement above, the writer used English electronic book in teaching reading comprehension. English electronic book is a media that can be used and useful in increasing students’ motivation in reading comprehension and make the students active during the learning process .

Electronic books, or e-books (also referred to as talking picture books, CD-ROM story books, interactive books, or digital books) are stories in a digital format that can be viewed on a computer or an electronic reading device. The text and illustrations are similar to traditional print books, but electronic books may also incorporate hypermedia such as sounds, animations, highlighted text, music, and narration. Electronic books are multisensory in that readers are presented with visual images, sounds, and buttons to touch to navigate through the pages.

Furthermore, this research will be focused on the effect of English electronic book on the students’ motivation and achievement on reading comprehension. The researcher used this media to investigate how does the English electronic book affect the students motivation when they study about reading comprehension in the class room.

1.2. Identification of the problems
In relation to background of the problem above, the following problems can be identified: 
  1. The students get difficulties in comprehending the reading text, finding the main idea, getting information from the text, finding the details, finding synonyms or antonyms in particular words, getting the answer to the questions based on the text and making inference from the text. Based on Pre-Observation, in learning process, the teachers only apply the same media for all types of reading texts. 
  2. The teacher do not realize the appropriate media of teaching reading especially which deals with active learning which needs to be applied in various types of text the students’ interaction. 
  3. In learning process, the teachers only apply the same media ( traditional books) . The result is that the students do not have any ideas in their mind of their reading. And they feel bored esily. 
1.3. Limitation of the Problem
In line with the identification of the problems, the focus of the research was on the teaching reading comprehension using English electronic book. The writer assumed that the English electronic book can affect students motivation and their achievement on reading comprehension. 

1.4. Formulation of the Problems
  1. Based on the limitation of the problem above, the researcher formulates the research problems as follows: 
  2. Does English electronic book significantly affect students’ motivation and achievement on reading comprehension? 
  3. How does English electronic book affect the students’ motivation and achievement on reading comprehension? 

1.5. Objectives of the Research
Based on the formulation of the problems above, objectives of the research is as follows : 
  1. To find out whether there are any effects of English text book to students’ motivation and achievement on reading comprehension. 
  2. To investigate how does English electronic book affect students’ motivation and achievement on reading comprehension. 

1.6. Significances of the Research

The results of this study are expected to be beneficial both theoretically and practically elaborated in the following section.

Theoretically 
The results of the research are expected to support theories dealing with the effect of English text book on students’ motivation and achievement on reading comprehension in as discussed in chapter 2 

Practically 
The results of this research are expected to give information to the English teachers, how to choose appropriate media especially in teaching reading comprehension so that the students will have strong motivation on reading comprehension.

CHAPTER II
THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK

In this chapter the writer , the writer would like to disscuss some theories related to the study. The theories focus on the general concept of reading comprehension, motivation, achievement and English text book. 

2.1. Reading comprehension
Reading comprehension is the process of making meaning from text. The goal, therefore, is to gain an overall understanding of what is described in the text rather than to obtain meaning from isolated words or sentences. another definition o f reading comprehension may expand on the aforementioned one. Not only does reading comprehension at the most basic level include mastery o f “the basic decoding skills that serve to attach meaning to written symbols” (Wagner & Sternberg, 1987), but it also encompasses the prior knowledge of the reader. 

In addition to these skills, reading comprehension may also entail “the ability to determine how and where to apply one’s reading resources in order to maximally reach one’s goals in a comprehension given situation ” (Wagner & Sternberg, 1987), In other words, beyond the mechanical skills o f reading and the application of the reader’s prior knowledge and experience, a reader also needs to know what is to be done with the information he or she is processing. Along with that knowledge is the idea that even shallow comprehension may not be taking place. 

If a reader “understands all of the words and sentence, but fails to grasp the gist of a text,” (Just & Carpenter, 1987) then they are only comprehending the most superficial of meanings of the written word. Many times, the cause o f such shallow comprehension is the reader’s prior knowledge of a topic or lack thereof. It can be said then, that “those portions of a text that are more important to a reader’s goals are read more carefully, and this selectivity in reading contributes to the levels effect in recall” (Just & Carpenter, 1987). 

How prior knowledge is used by a reader though, can hinge upon the type of reading task at hand. If “readers know that their recall will be tested, then they spend more time on the sentences that contain new facts; subsequently, they can recall the sentences with new facts just as well as the sentences with old facts (Just &Carpcnter,1987). 

Since reading comprehension is so critical in terms of academic success, it can be argued that that motivating a student to read is equally crucial. In order to understand the significance o f what is read one must be a critical reader. Critical readers have the ability to “move forward or backward through the text... ” and can “relate different parts of the text to each other to get a better grip on understanding” (Chapman, Making Sense. 1993). 

Since many of the traditional strategies for improving reading comprehension have been found “to promote recall rather than comprehension,” (Chapman, 1993) secondary teachers are understandably reluctant to apply those strategies. Strategies that focus on a deeper understanding though, should be a different story. If there is a connection for the reader with the text, then there is a greater chance at recall and understanding. Indeed, “people remember connected discourse better because their prior knowledge and expectations permit them to form a highly interconnected representation” (Goetz and Armbruster, 1980). Teachers seeking effective approaches to improved comprehension therefore, must make those connections, or help their students do so. In attempting to improve reading comprehension, there is yet another factor that requires some exploration. Some studies have shown that the greater an individual’s interest with the text, the greater their comprehension of that text. Since ‘students who are personally involved in reading remember texts better and achieve a deeper understanding of those texts, (Smith & White, 1987) it is clear that teachers need to help their students make those personal connections with the reading material. 

To achieve true comprehension then, readers must go beyond the basic decoding o f the text. They must think about what they have read on a deeper level than the simple perception o f the meaning o f the words. “The comprehension processes interprets language, transforming from linguistic symbols to a more abstract symbolic representation—that is, from language to thought” (Dechant, 1991). This clearly leads to a discussion o f what that deeper meaning in the text is. Failure in early grades may also have an impact on the ability to comprehend what is read in later school years. “Students who fail to read well early in their school careers rarely catch up,” (Madden, eLal., 1997). This means that what started out as an achievement problem can, in the secondary levels o f education develop into problems o f “low self-esteem, anxiety, poor motivation and avoidance” (Madden, et.al.,1997). 

Secondary educators then, may be dealing with a motivational factor that goes much deeper than simple indolence or lack o f attention. “Many students find the reading material in their subject matter classes difficult to understand” (Ryder and Graves, 1994). Their abiUty to understand the text is limited by their lack of prior knowledge about the subject. It is left to the teacher then, to imderstand their level of prior knowledge and to build upon it, or to build a bridge from what the students already know, to the unknown in the text. Once that is accomplished, then the level o f proficiency for each reader can be improved and deepened. Proficient readers understand why they are reading and they have a full supply of strategies to apply to various texts for comprehension. They will apply these strategies before, during and after the reading to help themselves understand what was read and to learn from it. Teachers can help promote this high level o f proficiency in several ways. 

At first, the instructor may need to provide direct, explicit instructions on what to look for in the text. As Students become more adept at reading the information, the teacher may relinquish some o f that control and just offer ''supportive instruction’'' (Ryder & Graves, 1994) which would give help when it is needed. The eventual goal obviously is for the students to actively become proficient and independent readers. This is a type of reading instruction most appropriate for the secondary level. In fact, if students are to be brought to such a level of u derstanding, they may need to do so through more “interactive instruction." (Kucan & Beck, "Review of Educational Research," 1997) The focus o f such reading instruction moves from teacher-led instruction, through independent student centered strategies, to peer-led approaches. Such an approach relies in a large part on the reading comprehension o f the group, but should not ignore the abilities o f the individuals. 

learning is not confined to knowledge constructed as a product...but also includes a developing understanding o f and ability to use the processes by which such knowledge is constructed.” (Kucan & Beck, 1997) Students therefore, acquire and hone a much deeper comprehension o f the subject matter, which also adds to their knowledge base, giving them a deeper motivation to gain more knowledge. An increase in reading comprehension may also come about as a result o f a similar strategy known as CR or “Collaborative Strategic Reading.” (Klinger & Vaughn, 1999) Utilizing this approach, students, with the help o f the teacher and peers, “increasingly become more proficient at applying comprehension strategies and constructing knowledge while reading from the context area texts.” (Klinger & Vaughn, 1999) Students are taught to first get a grasp o f what the main idea is, and then explore the unknowns in the text such as unfamiliar vocabulary or concepts. On the surface, this may seem to be a more elemental approach, but it may also be one that works better with certain students.

1.2 Motivation
a. Definition of Motivation 

Many psychologists have given various definitions of motivation. We have to comprehend about motivation in order to know and to understand what motivation is.

The word “motivation” is familiar for us that is commonly used in our society, but definitely what the word actually refers to is not simple as it’s utterance. The abstract term “motivation” on its own is rather difficult to define, it is easier and more useful to think in terms of the ‘motivated’ learner: one who ‘willing’ or even eager to invest effort in learning activities and to progress. Learner motivation makes teaching and learning immeasurably easier and more pleasant, as well as more productive: hence the importance or the topic for the teachers. From the statements above, the writer can conclude that motivation is an essential factor of learning to achieve something. It is the process which directs to activity. It means motivation plays a vital part in teaching and learning activity, so it has an influence toward students’ success or failure as language learners, so the teacher must develop an understanding of the nature of the motives and techniques of motivation. The term motivation is derived from the Latin verb ‘movere’ (to move) the process whereby goal director activity is instigated and sustained.11 It means the teacher should know if the students have high motivation, they will try to study hard and get achievement in learning. Motivation is some kind of internal and external drive that encourages somebody to pursue a course of action. If we perceive a goal (this is, something we wish to achieve) and if that goal is sufficiently attractive, we will be strongly motivated to do whatever is necessary to reach that goal. Language learners who are motivated perceive goals of various kinds. We can make a useful distinction between short term goals and long term goals. Long term goals might have something to do with a wish to get a better job at some future date, or a desire to be able to communicate with members of a target language community. Short term goals might include such things as wanting to pass an end of semester test or wanting to finish an unit book.12 From those definitions above, it is clear that motivation is internal and external drive which pushes someone to do or achieve something what he wants. So motivation is an essential of learning to achieve something.

b . Kinds of Motivation
Motivation can be divided into two kinds, intrinsic motivation (the urge to engage in the learning activity for its own sake) and extrinsic motivation (motivation that is derived from external incentives). Both or these have an important part to play in classroom motivation, and both are at least partially accessible to teacher influence.

a. Intrinsic motivation
“Intrinsic motivation comes from within the individual.” It means motivation is a desire which comes from inside to do something. Santrock said that intrinsic motivation involves the internal motivation to do something for its own sake (an end in itself). For example, another student may study hard for a test because he or she enjoys the content of the course. So, intrinsic motivation is the natural tendency to seek out challenges as we pursue personal interest and exercise capabilities, the statement above shown that motivation will be active or has function did not need to stimulate from outside, because every person has a drive to do something. A more powerful category of reward is one which is intrinsically driven within the learner. Gage and Berliner said that intrinsic motivation can be found such as in students’ interest, need, and goal in learning. Moreover, hobby exemplifies intrinsic motivation.
  1. Interest, students with an interest in a subject tend to pay attention to it. They feel that it makes a difference to them. They want to become fully aware of its character. They enjoy dealing with it either for what it can lead to or for its own sake. Interest can refer to selection of stimuli or attending to something.18 Interest is the factor which determiners an attitude in working or studying actively. Learning process will run well if the students have an interest. The students will study regularly or effectively and they will be success if they have high interest.
  2. Need, a condition of tension in an organism resulting from deprivation of something required for survival well-being, or personal fulfillment a substance, state or any other thing.19 It means that need is a circumstances in which something is necessary. The characteristics of the three types of needs are20 : a). Need for achievement, involves a strong desire to succeed in attaining goals, not only realistic ones but also challenging ones. b). Need for affiliation, people high in this need seek to be liked by others and to be held in high regard by those around them. c). Need for power, power is not about reaching a goal but about having control over other people. People high in this need would want to have influence over others and make an impact on them.
  3. Hobby is an activity or interest that is undertaken for pleasure or relaxation in one's spare time.21 So, hobby is an activity which is done for pleasure and it is usually something that you really enjoy to do it. Hobby is an activity done for pleasure during one’s free time. That means hobby refers to like or pleasure doing something for wasting time, example, John’s hobby is studying, he always tries to read a book wherever he is. 
  4. Goal, we have said that motivation is closely bound up with a person’s desire to achieve a goal. The learner is very aware of the goals of learning, or of specific learning activities, and directs his or her efforts towards achieving them. All people have a goal in their life. Before they do what they wanted to do, they have decided a goal first. In teaching and learning activity, the students have to know and decide to a goal, because it can be a great motivation for them. If the students know the appropriate goal, they will prepare everything that can help them to achieve their goal.
b. Extrinsic motivation
Extrinsic motivation is that which derives from the influence of some kind of external incentive, as distinct from the wish to learn for its own sake or interest in tasks.”22 Extrinsic motivations are motive active and function if there is stimulation from outside. An example : a person studying, because he or she knows that tomorrow morning there will be a test, by hoping that she or he could get a good value. We can find many sources of motivation, but actually motivation only has two big sources, the first source comes from within the individual itself or known as intrinsic motivation and the second is extrinsic motivation, which appears from the outer side of and give some influences to the individual like give incentives, social pressure or punishment. This motivation appears or comes from teacher, parents, and environment.
  1. Teacher, a major factor in continue of a student’s motivation is the teacher. Teacher has an important role in teaching learning activity. The teacher is not only a person who transfers the knowledge to the students, but also as a motivator who can motivate or support the students in learning activity. 
  2. Parents, a part from the culture of the world around students, their attitude to language learning will be greatly affected by the influence of people who are close to them. The attitude of parents and older siblings will be crucial.24 Students who are encouraged by their parent will try new things and try to give high performance to get reward from their parent. As a result, they will get better achievement.
  3. Environment, outside any classroom there are attitudes to language learning and the English language in particular. The learning of English is important to be considered in the society. In a school situation, the language learning is part of the curriculum of thing status, the cultural images associated with English are positive. All these views of language learning will affect the student’s attitude to the language being studied, and the nature and strength of this attitude will, in its turn, have a profound effect on the degree of motivation the student brings to class and whether or not that motivation continues. Even where adult students have made their own decision to come to a class to study English, they will bring them attitudes from the society they live in, developed over years, whether these attitudes are thoroughly positive or somewhat negative.25 Students who are motivated by their environment will have encouragement to learn English. In the other words, if their home environment and the atmosphere of classroom and also the quality of facilities are good, they will do their best to achieve better English. Generally, it has been known that to determine someone’s learning, motivation is not only from individual factor, but also environment factor. Environment is everything which exists around us which has correlation influences in ourselves.
2.3. The Student’s Learning Motivation 
Learning is the act, process or experience of gaining knowledge or skill. Knowledge or skill gained through schooling or study. There are many definitions of learning:
1. Learning is shown by a change in behavior as a result of experience. 
2. Learning is to observe, to read, to imitate, to try something themselves, to listen, to follow direction. 
3. Learning is a change in performance as a result of practice.

From those definitions above, the writer can conclude that learning is a change of behavior or performance by doing activities, such as reading, listening, and imitating to get knowledge, so the learners have to practice regularly of learning activities. One of factors of learning is motivation. Motivation is hidden power which is coming from inside and outside of the learners which drives them to do something benefit to get the desire changes. The learners will be success if they have motivation, motivation to know what will be learnt and to understand why they learn, so the learners can have or gain information and get knowledge from what they have learnt. Learning motivation is the desire or drive which comes from inside and outside to learn language, especially English through a process which is done by learners to take a change of behavior as a result of experience and to get knowledge. Motivation has a significant role in teaching and learning process. The students who have a higher motivation will get better opportunity to succeed in their learning activities than the lower one.

2.4 . The Student’s Learning Achievement
Achievement is important thing to measure how far our effort and skill can be reach. It is as a result of our activity which we have done, especially in learning. Hornby said “Achievement is a thing done successfully, especially with an effort and skill.”27 Achievement is the act of achieving or performing, an obtaining by exertion, effort and skill successfully. ”Achievement is considered as the drive and energy students bring to school work in desire to make progress in their learning and achievement.”28 It means achievement is the result that students obtain after following a teaching learning process in certain period of time. As such, the concept of achievement is critical to effective teaching. For a teacher, students’ motivation is important because motivation can serve as both an objective in itself and a means for furthering achievement of other educational objectives. As an objective, motivation becomes one of the purposes of teaching.29 Teachers make assumption about what motives or facilitate achievement based on what students do in the classroom-their performance, their behavior, how they respond to the teacher and classroom tasks, and so forth.30 The meaning of achievement is a result of learning that indicated by a changing of students’ behavior in their knowledge, skill and attitude. The conclusion is learning achievement is how much knowledge that the students obtained in learning English after they have followed teaching learning process in particular period of time. Here are theories of achievement: 31 1. The self-efficacy theory of achievement emphasized students’ judgments of how well or not so well or not so well they will perform a task given the skills they have and the circumstances they face. Students become highly motivated to achieve when they believe they can perform a task or an activity successfully. 2. The attribution theory of achievement emphasized students’ interpretations of their success or failure. Students become highly motivated to achieve when they attribute successes mainly to ability and failures mainly to lack of effort. The attributions theory of motivation suggests that the explanations people give for behavior, particularly their own success and failures, have strong influences on future plans and performance.

There are many factors that influence students’ learning achievement, such as, students’ behavior in learning, teacher, teaching and learning process in the classroom, environment, etc. The students will be success in learning if they have achievement, so learning achievement is important because it can determine students’ success in learning with effort and skill.

2.5. English electronic book
Electronic books (or e-books) can be defined as any group of text in a digital format that is to be read and displayed on a computer screen. They can be accessed in a myriad of different ways including through the internet, on a CD-ROM or by many of the portable e-book readers available on the market. Many types of content are also available for free download or purchase including popular fiction, non-fiction, as well as educational titles (Maynard, 2005, p. 103). This emerging technology has opened the possibility for a large range of new learning experiences for students because of its advantages over traditional printed textbooks. Electronic books often contain rich multimedia features that cannot be found in textbooks. These frequently include recordings of the text read-aloud, lively animations, music, video and various sound effects.

An e-book (electronic book) is just that: an electronic version of a print book that can be read on a computer or digital device. E-books can also exist without a print counterpart. Another name for an e-book that I will use interchangeably is digital book. E-book readers—or sometimes simply known as e-readers—are portable electronic devices meant to support e-books and other digital texts or periodicals. For simplicity, I restrict my definition of e-book readers to devices whose main purpose is for reading; smart phones, computers, laptops, and in some cases, tablets.

Based on definitions of the electronic book above, it’s mean that electronic book is really interesting for the students. It is very attractive media for teaching reading. And it can motivate the students especially in reading comprehension.

2.6. Conceptual Framework 
Based on theoretical framework and the statement by psychologists who said that “High level of motivation lead to high achievement” . Students’ motivation especially in learning English as one factor that is assumed can influence the students’ learning achievement in English by the following reason, students who are motivated to learn English will drive their self to learn without burden and problem. In other words, they will enjoy their learning process and try to produce the desired changes in learning English. Students who are motivated will expend psychological energy necessary to acquire responses, they will not avoid the learning situation that produce the desired changes. Students who have higher motivation in learning English will get better opportunity to succeed in their learning activities than the lower one. Students who are motivated usually have need to learn English, and they will fulfill their goal. If they know the appropriate goal, they will prepare everything to help them to achieve their goal, a better English score. 

Students’ motivation doesn’t only come from inside, but also comes from outside, such as teacher, parents, and environment. So the writer can assume that motivation is related to one and other. Motivation is very strongly relate to achievement in language learning. From the statement above, it is clear that learning motivation is very important thing in language learning process and it related to achievement. From the opinion that psychologist’s express, a similar thing that learning is an experience as a change of behavior or someone as a result of her or his interaction with learning environment. Classroom is a social system, such as it influences both student and teacher behavior. Students’ motivation and learning are influenced by process and structure created in particular classroom. Success in learning beside of teaching and learning process can be looked from achievement. Learning achievement can be reached by student if it is influenced by internal and external factor.

As the external factor, we as teachers can increase students motivation especially on reading comprehension by giving them English electronic book. Because in English electronic book it really attractive and can help students enjoy it.

REFERENCES
  1. D,Alison. 2011. Building comprehension strategies.Australia: Elenor curtain publishing
  2. Larson, L. (2008). Electronic reading workshop: Beyond books with new literacies and instructional technologies. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 52(2), 121-131.
  3. Lefever-Davis, S., & Pearman, C. J. (2005). Early readers and electronic texts: CD-ROM
  4. storybook features that influence reading behaviors. The Reading Teacher, 58(5), 446–454. doi:10.1598/RT.58.5.4
  5. Pintrich and Dale H. Schunk, Motivation in Education Theory, Research, and Application, (New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2008),

Facebook Comment